Creating Emotionally Intelligent Teams
When Daniel Goleman wrote his landmark books on emotional intelligence in the 90’s (Emotional Intelligence, 1995, Working with Emotional Intelligence, 1998), managers in organizations everywhere nodded heads in agreement. Finally, what they knew to be true about dealing with people had a name and was clearly articulated.
For the past 15 years, research in organizations has shown that feelings and emotions have a direct impact on the bottom line.
Most importantly, this concept has great potential for creating positive change. Instead of feeling stuck, people can now take steps to enhance their emotional intelligence and increase their effectiveness in both their work and personal lives.
Currently, the concept is being applied to teams. The emotional intelligence of teams is important because most of the work in organizations today is done by teams. Leaders have a pressing need for teams to work together better.
Teams have more talent and experience, more diversity of resources, and greater operating flexibility than individual performers. Research in the last decade has shown the superiority of group decision-making over that of even the brightest individual in the group.
The exception to this rule is when the group lacks harmony or the ability to cooperate. Then decision-making quality and speed suffer.
The important difference between effective teams and ineffective ones lies in the emotional intelligence of the group. Teams have an emotional intelligence of their own. It is comprised of the emotional intelligence of individual members, plus a collective competency of the group.
Everyone contributes to the overall level of emotional intelligence, with the team leader having more influence. The good news is that teams can improve their emotional intelligence and boost their performance.
Three elements of successful teams
In an article entitled “Building the Emotional Intelligence of groups,” Vanessa Urch Druskat and Steven B. Wolff (Harvard Business Review, March 2001) identify three conditions essential to a group’s effectiveness:
- Trust among members
- A sense of group identity
- A sense of group efficacy
To be most effective, the team needs to create emotionally intelligent norms – the attitudes and behaviors that eventually become habits – that support behaviors for building trust, group identity, and group efficacy. Group identity is described as a feeling among members that they belong to a unique and worthwhile group. A sense of group efficacy is the belief that the team can perform well and that group members are more effective working together than apart.
Group emotional intelligence is not a question of catching emotions as they bubble up and then suppressing them. It involves courageously bringing feelings out into the open and dialoguing about how they affect the team’s work. If emotions are avoided, there is a false or superficial tone that “everything’s just fine.” Groups cannot work together without having personalities that butt up against each other. Admitting to this is the first step in clarifying and finding common ground upon which to move forward.
Group emotional intelligence is also about behaving in ways that build relationships both inside and outside the team. Building relationships strengthens the team’s ability to face challenges. In order to strengthen relationships, the group must feel safe to explore, embrace, and ultimately to rely on emotions in work. Emotions must be considered for the good of the group. Feelings count, but then there are the tasks at hand and the work that needs to be done. Team leaders must constantly balance harmony with productivity.
Feeling good and the bottom line
When people feel good, they work better, are more creative, and are more productive. Good feelings are like lubrication for the brain – mental efficiency goes up, memory is sharpened, people can understand directions and make better decisions. Studies have shown this to be especially true when it comes to teams. This is because emotions are contagious. When one or two people are in a good mood, it spreads easily to other members.
A team’s effectiveness can depend on how well it works together in harmony. A leader skilled in creating good feelings can keep cooperation high. Good team leaders know how to balance the focus on productivity with attention to member’s relationships and their ability to connect. There is even research that shows that humor at work can stimulate creativity, open lines of communications, and enhance a sense of trust. Playful joking increases the likelihood of concessions during a negotiation. Emotionally intelligent team leaders know how to use humor and playfulness with their teams.
Creating good moods in employees may be even more important than previously thought. It is common sense to see that workers who feel upbeat will go the extra mile to please customers and therefore improve the bottom line. There is research to show that for every 1 percent improvement in the service climate, there’s a 2 percent increase in revenue. New research from a range of industries now reaffirms the link between leadership and climate, to business performance. According to Goleman in Primal Leadership (2002), how people feel about working at a company can account for 20 to 30 percent of business performance.
Part of understanding the emotional reality of a team is uncovering the particular habits ingrained in a team or organization that drive behaviors. A prime example is the notion of “It’s just the way we do things here.” The team leader is effective when he or she looks for signs that reveal if such habits are working or not. It is the leader’s job to explore and expose unhealthy work habits in order to build more effective group norms.
How is emotional intelligence developed?
One of the ways groups can create better self-awareness is through the use of assessments, such as the DISC Index, Values Index, and Attribute Index found in the ADVanced Insights package. These tools show individuals how they have natural preferences for taking in information, organizing their work, communicating, and making decisions. A better understanding of one’s own style leads to acceptance and understanding of how team members are different – not better or worse, just different in the ways they organize their work and their world.
For example, one of the most common sources of conflict in groups in the workplace is attitude towards rules, regulations and deadlines. The ADVanced Insights assessment can show how team members like to make decisions, whether they like to keep their options open and gather in more information, or whether they like closure and come to decisions more quickly. A greater understanding of these fundamental ways of thinking and behaving can go a long way toward creating greater understanding and acceptance between members.
Greater interpersonal understanding can also be created through exercises in perspective formation. Working with an executive coach can facilitate greater understanding, and build trust through exploration of the dynamics of the group and group communication exercises.
Just as important as awareness is the ability to regulate emotions. People take their emotional cues from those around them. Something that seems upsetting can seem not so bad, depending on whether colleagues smooth feathers or fan the flames. The ability to regulate group emotions comes from establishing norms for both confrontation and caring.
In any group, people will eventually cross lines and confrontation becomes necessary. There must be a means for doing this that is firm yet respectful. The team leader sets the tone for this. Caring confrontation is an art that can be learned and taught to both leaders and members. The use of humor can be very effective as a means for bringing errant members back into the group fold. The message is, “We want you as part of this group, your contributions are needed.”
Here are the group norms that build trust and a sense of group identity for members:
- Interpersonal understanding
- Perspective taking
They can be learned and developed wherever they don’t exist naturally. It may take some time and attention, but they are too important to be overlooked. Teams are at the very foundation of organizational effectiveness and they won’t work without mutual trust and common commitment to goals.
Four Cluster’s of Emotional Competency
A group’s emotional intelligence requires the same competencies as an individual’s: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and social or relationship management. These competencies continue to be researched extensively by the Hay Group. These are the core dimensions measured by the Emotional Competencies Inventory, a 360 degree survey of emotional intelligence.
How the emotional competencies show up on a team level is a bit different. These competencies relate both to the individuals and to the group as a whole. Groups have their moods and needs and they act collectively. They often feel collectively, because emotions are contagious. Raising the level of awareness of these core competencies is part of the work of a coach.
One technique for raising awareness is to have team members rate the team on a scale of 1 to 10 on each cluster. Then they rate the team on where they should be in order to maximize team effectiveness. They then rate themselves individually, and select one or two behaviors they can commit to improving. They commit publicly to the team, and ask for regular feedback on their progress. Using a trained coach to facilitate the process is recommended.
- Emotional self-awareness
- Accurate self-assessment
- Organizational awareness
- Service orientation
- Developing others
- Change catalyst
- Conflict management
- Teamwork and collaboration
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